Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Pastor Robert Jeffress , Quraan Conference and birth of America Together Foundation

Edited on Wednesday, November 30, 2011, written up November 30, 2010
Pastor Robert Jeffress attacks Mormons, Muslims, Catholics, Jews, Buddhists and Hindus consistently, he calls them all cults. Please note that I am not highlighting his affiliation with the Dallas Baptist Church, there is no way, the Church approves hate or ill-will towards other humans, it goes against the very teachings of Jesus Christ.

As a society we have faltered in blaming the group or the religion for the acts of individuals. The words of Pastor Jeffress generates fear, anxieties hate and ill-will, it is him and not the reflection of his Church, even if the congregation sheepishly claps and gives a standing ovation when the pastor calls out, “Islam is an evil evil religion and Quraan is a book written by a false prophet” with full passion.

Please remove any bias you may have against Baptist Church because you’ll find bigotry in every denomination and every religion and no one can cast the first stone. In a short span of 7 years, in my own town Dallas, just one Baptist Pastor’s ignorance is overwhelmed by many Baptist pastors, just to name a few who reflect the inclusive teachings of Jesus with substantial backing are Late Pastor Roy Harrell of Thanksgiving Square, who led the Christian Coalition prayers representing several denominations at the Unity day USA program in 1985; Pastor George Mason of the Wilshire Baptist Church who was the first one to agree to be on the panel of demystifying the myths about Quraan in the Quraan conference and Pastor Bob Roberts who has led many expeditions in exploring common grounds among faiths, including a joint commemoration of 9/11 by Muslims and Baptist. By the way, both the gentlemen were recipients of the “Pluralist Award” in 2009 for their work in living with no bias towards others.

The chronological sequence of the events from the day Pastor Robert Jeffress called Islam and evil evil religion to the Quraan Conference. Much of the documentation is on the Television, Dallas Morning News and at

This is how it began:

What made me visit the church was his comment a week earlier, “Quraan is an evil book written by a false prophet" and shamelessly, his congregation clapped and gave a standing ovation for a hateful speech in the name of Christ.

The intent of this piece is to understand Pastor Jeffress, unless more research is un-earthed, he seems to be a charlatan duping his congregation with falsities in the name of Christ.

One listen to his sermon can unravel so much about this man.

First, I must give credit to the man Mr. Jonathan Halsey of the Unificationists Church, who saw that it was an un-Christian thing to preach hate in a Church and he gathered Mr. Marzuk Jami and myself to attend the Church with him on Sunday, September 12, 2010. The day was a busy one for me as I had a major program Unity Day that evening. Alexis Yancey wrote a timely press release to the media.
The four of us including Paul ….. walked into the Dallas Baptist Church in down town on Sunday, September 12, 2010. During the sermon, I observe, he wanted 400 of his congregation members to sign up on Pastors committee; he would not proceed with the sermon unless he had the count. Their goal was to bring at least one potential convert to the church through the fall, spring and summer seasons.
He is an incredible mathematical genius – 2400 new converts at $ 1000 per head would give Pastor Jeffress in excess of $2million in revenues of which some will go to the expansion of the Church and the rest as a possible reward to him for his work.
During his sermon he shared the story of one of the convert founders who had donated over a million dollars and continues to dole out the monies. The Pastor was seeing the rainfall of green bucks.
Someone piped in his ears that a few Muslims are in his congregation and he duly asked us to stand up and had us acknowledged by the congregation. It indeed was a nice gesture.
In his sermon he told that he would walk and put the fire out on a Jewish home, but on the 3rd day he said on My Fox News that he would reference the story of putting the fire out on a Muslim home. Both the videos should be available on FSB site and of course Fox news.
In the same sermon he praised the lord and extolled Jesus Christ, which Muslims do it with their heart. Indeed, Jesus is my mentor. The he adds, “No other religion teaches purpose of life, except Christianity”. Later on in the lobby I had a conversation with him – that Baha’i, Hindu, Islam and others teach the purpose of life – to serve God and his creation. I asked him if he had studied other religions to have made that claim. He simply ignored the question.
What made me visit the church was his comment a week earlier, “Quraan is an evil book written by a false prophet" and shamelessly, his congregation clapped and gave a standing ovation for a hateful speech in the name of Christ. I implored him to tell the truth or at least find the truth and share it with his congregation; he refused even to find the truth for this congregation. In that speech, he was berating Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism and Judaism. I am really surprised how the Jewish community let him get away with it, he may be the only one or they may look to him as a looney barking aimlessly. I am glad the African Americans and Jewish Americans will nail any one for one wrong word against them; Muslims need to learn from them and not take the crap from these men ( and of course a few women too).

What followed later were exchanges on NBC 5 and FOX 11 and write ups in Dallas Morning News. All of which is chronicled in the Bibliography below.

Pastor Dr. Robert Jeffress chickened out to my challenge to host the Quraan debate on his own turf. I offered him copies of the Quraan translation by Muhammad Asad, giving him the benefit of doubt that he may have read the two false translations out of 25 some translations. Steve Blow of Dallas Morning News framed my interview very well, “In the Middle Ages, European leaders commissioned a hostile Quran translation to foster warfare against Muslim invaders. Later, Muslim leaders produced another translation to inflame Muslims against Christians and Jews.” I asked the Pastor to invite all the Islamophobes and do a conference and put the falsities behind and look for better relations.

He had the biggest challenge of his life and he chickened out on that tood. “Pastor, I will present the right Quraan translation to you, you gather all the Islamophobes and let’s have a talk. If you find three evil things in the Quraan, I will abandon my religion Islam and join your Church, the Baptist Church.” We need to do a conference and put the falsities behind.

We did the most amazing conference on Quraan addressing difficult verses by Non-Muslims clergy bringing a graceful closure to Pastor Jeffress rants.

Myths are manufactured about others without any substantiation; it is an old business of maligning others to have a momentary gain. Quraan is challenged by Pastor Robert Jeffress, Pat Robertson, Terry Jones and others who have not made any effort to find the truth, let alone understand the book.
Ever since we declared our independence in 1776, we have been tested time and again by various political, economic and religious forces to divide us, however, at the end we have come out strong as one nation. The Civil War, the Great Depression, the World War, Pearl Harbor, Women’s rights, Abortion, the Vietnam War, Civil Rights, Budget Deficits, Unemployment, 9/11, the Iraq and Afghanistan War have all been difficult, but we will make it through and sanity will prevail.

The Quraan conference, Understanding GLBT, Quraan, Anti-Semitism, race, gender and other issues are American issues and not Jewish, Muslim or African American issues. We understand that a few are committed to pitting one American against the other for their own gains.
As Americans Together, we will find solutions to the issues we face and we are indeed committed.
Links in the article:

Mike Ghouse is committed to building a cohesive America and offers pluralistic solutions on issues of the day to the media and the public. He is a speaker thinker and a writer on the topics of pluralism, cohesive societies, Politics, Islam, interfaith, India and Peace. Over a thousand articles have been published on the topics and two of his books are poised to be released on Pluralism and Islam. Mike's work is reflected in 4 website's and 27 Blogs indexed at and you can find all of his current articles at


Dr. Jeffress Tells The Truth About Islam – At the end of the video, his congregation claps for the hateful remarks by Jeffress.

Uploaded by firstbaptistdallas on Aug 23, 2010

By Patrick Williams Thursday, Sep 2 2010

Unedited: Dr. Robert Jeffress statements on Islam (same as above)

Posted on August 29, 2010 at 10:26 PM

Dr. Jeffress Responds to Dallas News Columnist
He claims to speak the truth...!

Dallas Pastor Defends Claim That Islam 'Promotes Pedophilia' (VIDEO)

An Open Letter to Rev. Robert Jeffress, FBC Dallas

Sunday Morning on Fox
Published: Sunday, 12 Sep 2010, 10:55 PM CDT

Monday Morning on Fox,-muslims-meet-to-discuss-quran

Posted by Richard Ray: Monday, 13 Sep 2010, 4:52 PM CDT

Muslims, Jews and Hindus are going to hell

Published: 19 September 2010 02:28 AM

Mike Ghouse Challenges Quraan Translation with Pastor Robert Jeffress - 1 of 2 -
Uploaded by Pluralism center on Sep 17, 2010

Mike Ghouse Challenges Quraan Translation with Pastor Robert Jeffress - 2 of 2

Uploaded by Pluralism center on Sep 17, 2010

Mike Ghouse challenges Robert Jeffress

Islam is a false religion by a false prophet, unraveling the difficulties - Americans Together

Uploaded by Pluralism center on Nov 3, 2010

Americans have been challenged time and again - Americans Together -

Uploaded by Pluralism center on Nov 3, 2010

Americans need not live in fear of others - Americans together

Uploaded by Pluralismcenter on Nov 3, 2010

We have to build, rebuild and continuously build the social cohesiveness of our nation. Details at:

Perry's Values Voters Endorser: Islam is an "Evil, Evil Religion"

—By Tim Murphy Fri Oct. 7, 2011 6:29 PM PDT

Submitted by Brian Tashman on October 8, 2011 - 1:15pm

Jeffress on Mormons

By () on October 8, 2011

Jeffress: Mormonism from Pit of Hell

Uploaded by RWWBlog on Oct 8, 2011

Jeffress Calls Mormonism A Cult – Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism are all false religions


Richard Ray of Fox4 News interviewed me about Pastor Jeffress and the Quraan at 11:00 AM this morning, however due to time constraints, or other reasons they have edited out the critical points about killing the infidel and Quraan Translations. I will recreate that interview and post it on the web in a few days, right here.

The challenge is simple; I will present the right translations of the Qur'aan to Rev. Robert Jeffress in his congregation and challenge him to find 3 evil things about Quraan, if he does, I will go work for his ministry, if he does not, I ask of him to retract the thoughtless cavalier statements he made about Islam and Quraan, and take up the challenge of becoming a peace maker.

Thanks to the Islam bashers for telling me what is it that bothers them, they have time and again given me a list of about 60 verses, and I have made serious effort to address them most directly at: I have dealt with some of the Islamophobes who have made their business by maligning others including Islam, in this case. Look at their websites; they shamelessly ask for money, people should seriously debate if their money is going to bring peace or chaos.

Whether it is Pastor Jones, Jeffress, Phelps or Robertson, the media has failed to nail down the exact words or phrases that cause them to make such divisive declarations, and the unfinished business is frustrating the public.

America needs peacemakers who can boldly clarify the un-truths and myths about each other for the sake of peace. We owe peace and security to each one of the 301 Million Americans, our efforts ought to be directed so everyone us can live without fear, without harassment and without prejudices. My question to Pastors Jeffress, Jones, Phelps, Robertsons and their likes is this; Didn't Jesus pray and worked to create the kingdom of heaven on the earth, so all of us can live freely?

Some 2000 years ago, Jesus delivered the sermon "Blessed are the peace makers" on Mt. Beatitude, I was there and felt the power of that statement. I walked where Jesus walked on via Dela Rosa; I was baptized in the river Jordan where Jesus was baptized. Symbolically, I accepted Jesus’ message to become a peace maker by drenching myself in the holy water.

The role of people of religions is to mitigate conflicts and nurture goodwill. I ask Rev. Robert Jeffress, Rev. Pat Robertson, Rev. Fred Phelps and Rev. Terry Jones to walk the journey of peace with me.

Pastor, Muslims Meet to Discuss Quran
Published : Monday, 13 Sep 2010, 4:52 PM CDT

Richard Ray
FOX 4 News
Adapted for Web by Tracy DeLatte,

DALLAS - First Baptist Church of Dallas Pastor Robert Jeffress said he has no regrets about calling Islam an evil religion. But on Sunday he gave a warm welcome to a group of Muslims visiting his church.

It was an unusual meeting of the minds. A pair of Muslim leaders showed up unexpectedly wanting to talk to the pastor, not sure what kind of reception they’d get.

“We have some very special guests here this morning. Leaders, members of the Islamic faith in Dallas and I want you to join me in giving them the warmest First Baptist welcome you can,” Jeffress said to his congregation.

Muslim Mike Ghouse was part of that small delegation and afterward met with Jeffress to discuss the Quran.

“He asked us to stand up and there was a good welcome. It was beautiful. I really liked that,” Ghouse.

He is convinced that Jeffress and most Americans have only read mistranslations of the Quran, where ugly language about Christians and Jews has been incorrectly inserted.

“What he said about the Quran and Islam I agree with him. He has read the wrong translation. To find the truth, to be peacemakers, we have to find the truth for the sake of a secure America. His statements are divisive and offense,” Ghouse said.

A study last month by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life found that over the past five years the percentage of Americans with a positive view of Islam has dropped dramatically from 41 to 30 percent.

Jeffress said he enjoyed his meeting with Ghouse and the others, but still believes he has read an accurate translation. He expresses no regret for what he’s said about the religion.

“I have to regrets at all. I think some of my statements have been mischaracterized simply because the whole statement wasn’t given. I don’t believe most Muslims are terrorists. I don’t think most Muslims oppress women. But there is something within the religion of Islam itself that I believe incites violence,” he said.

Jeffress said he thinks he can disagree in a loving and kind way.

“I think we need to quit walking on egg shells. I think we do need to tell the truth. We tell it in love. But we still tell the truth,” he said.

Ghouse and the others involved in the meeting said they’d like to meet with Jeffress again in the future to have a deeper discussion.
# # #

Friday, November 11, 2011

Americans Together, a documentary

Here is the trailer of the upcoming documentary -

What a majority of Americans want is a just society where everyone feels safe, secure and without the fear of other. What exactly do we want? How will we make the change?  How do we convince those cashing in on hate and fear mongering? Can we find a way to make peace lucrative and redirect energy towards creating a cohesive America?

Our Founding Fathers laid the ground work for such a society, “ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."

Martin Luther King Jr. expressed that in his speech, “ I have a dream that my four little  children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.”

Chief Seattle, a Native American said this perfectly, “All things are connected. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons of the earth. Man did not weave the web of life; he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the webs, he does it to himself."

The questions we face are;

1. What are we doing to preserve that delicate web?
2. What are our initiatives?
3. What are the issues that divide us?
4. How would we allay the prevalent phobias and fears?
5. What is your vision for America?

John F Kennedy,
"And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man." We hope to capture your responses in a moving story about America. The "Occupy Movement" is a reflection of doing something. We need to channel that energy and passion in building a cohesive America.

Americans Together is a documentary about Americans working toward building that cohesive society. Our Mission is to build a cohesive America, where no American has to live with anxiety, discomfort or fear. We will highlight the role of the Muslims in this documentary.

It is time we bring fruition to the change we want, here is the first step in working towards building a cohesive America that is good for every one of the 312 Million Americans. Our focus will be overall prosperity rather than pitting one against the other.

Every American must feel a sense of security, safety and freedom. If we can learn to accept the otherness of others and respect the God given uniqueness of each one of us, then conflicts fade and solutions emerge.

"...We are one nation under God, indivisible with liberty and justice for all." We are represented by every race, nationality, ethnicity, language, culture and religion. We see God as one, none and many and in every form; male, female, genderless and non-existent, being and non-being, nameless and with innumerable names. America Together Foundation is committed to preserve this pluralistic heritage of America.

Indeed, we are not connected enough with each other for a vast majority of Americans to stand up for each other,  empathize with each other, or even understand the truth about each other that we are no different in our endeavors and aspirations in life.

The Prophets, Messengers of God, Spiritual masters, Wise Men and Women and the Peace Makers believed in peaceful co-existence of humanity and consistently solved differences and encouraging kindness among us all. 
Their effort was to bring about a positive change and create a cohesive society where no one was to be apprehensive of the other. 

Prophet Muhammad, the peace maker, believed in peaceful co-existence and consistently mitigated conflicts and nurtured goodwill amongst various groups. He wanted to bring about a change and create a cohesive society where no one lived in fear.

We have begun on our plan to interview and present different perspectives representing the full spectrum of America from extreme right to the extreme left and most certainly the moderate majority. We started with the heads of major Muslim organizations and will be reaching out to every representation of America. It’s my commitment to work towards building a unified America.

We hope to document the efforts that go towards building a just America that every one desires and is doing something about it. This documentary, Americans Together,  will be released this year at a conference to be attended by political candidates, elected representatives, religious, civil, business and community leaders.

We are looking for stories;

  • where people have stood up for each other, did everything they can towards creating a better America. 
  • compelling story to tell,
  •  has got to make people think, ponder and want to take an action. 

We are  looking for partners:

  • to fund and participate in our conference and documentary,
  • find and research stories
  • to write script
If you know someone who has a story or who wants to help us, please let us know.

The purpose of “Americans Together” is to remove myths in open discussion forum. In that we will restore the cohesiveness of our society, working towards building a safe and secure America for every one of the 312 Million of us.

We have come a long way to embrace and accept our differences. However, this year has given rise to yet another temptation; to blame Islam, calling it an,"evil, evil religion" and calling its Prophet, " a false prophet. No American has to live in fear of the other, nor live with  anxiety or discomfort.

Some have been misused and abused in the name of religion. As Americans, are we going to let that happen? No, we can pull ourselves together and not fall for the temptation to divide us.

Goodness will come to our rescue, if we make an effort. Mike Ghouse adds, "As members of diverse family of faiths, we seek to demystify the myths, malice and falsification of our respective faiths. It is time for all of us to gather and understand each other and purge ourselves from ill-will towards fellow Americans."

Americans Together is an educational and pragmatic initiative to weed out myths from reality, which is hurting the social cohesiveness of America. The myths are vigorously propagated by a few to disrupt the delicate balance in our society by pitting one American against the other for their own perceived gains.

Ever since we declared our independence, we have been tested time and again by various political, economic and religious forces to divide us, however, at the end we have come out strong as one nation. Let’s take that first step in bringing a positive change through dialogue.

As a society, it is our individual and collective responsibility to keep law and order and faithfully guard the safety of every citizen. Hate, prejudice and stereotyping are some of the many root causes of disrupting peace in a society. It is our duty to track down the source of such ill-will and work on mitigating it.

Mike Ghouse is committed to building a cohesive America and offers pluralistic solutions on issues of the day, to the media and the public. He is a speaker, thinker and a writer on the topics of pluralism, cohesive societies, politics, Islam, interfaith, India and peace. Over a thousand articles have been published on these topics and two of his books on Pluralism and Islam are poised to be released.

Mike's work is reflected in 4 website's and 27 Blogs indexed at,  and you can find all of his current articles at

United States Constitution

The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.

The first three Articles of the Constitution establish the three branches of the national government: a legislature, the bicameral Congress; an executive branch led by the President; and a judicial branch headed by the Supreme Court. They also specify the powers and duties of each branch. All unenumerated powers are reserved to the respective states and the people, thereby establishing the federal system of government.

The Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and ratified by conventions in each U.S. state in the name of "The People". It has been amended twenty-seven times; the first ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights.[1][2]

The United States Constitution is the second oldest written constitution still in use by any nation in the world[3] after the 1600 Statutes of San Marino.[4][5][6] It holds a central place in United States law and political culture.[7] The handwritten original document penned by Jacob Shallus is on display at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, D.C.

The Constitution consists of a preamble, seven original articles, twenty-seven amendments, and a paragraph certifying its enactment by the constitutional convention.

Authority and purpose

opening phrase
inspires friends, provokes opponents.
virtual tour online[131]

We the People of the United States,
in Order to form a more perfect Union,
establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility,
provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare,
and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity,
do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
—United States Constitution, Preamble

National government

Article One: Legislature

19th Century Growth - government housing its branches

Article One describes the Congress, the legislative branch of the federal government. The United States Congress is a bicameral body consisting of two co-equal houses: the House of Representatives and the Senate.

The article establishes the manner of election and the qualifications of members of each body. Representatives must be at least 25 years old, be a citizen of the United States for seven years, and live in the state they represent. Senators must be at least 30 years old, be a citizen for nine years, and live in the state they represent.

Article I, Section 1, reads, "All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives." This provision gives Congress more than simply the responsibility to establish the rules governing its proceedings and for the punishment of its members; it places the power of the government primarily in Congress.

Article I Section 8 enumerates the legislative powers. The powers listed and all other powers are made the exclusive responsibility of the legislative branch:

The Congress shall have power... To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

Article I Section 9 provides a list of eight specific limits on congressional power and Article I Section 10 limits the rights of the states.

The United States Supreme Court has interpreted the Commerce Clause and the Necessary and Proper Clause in Article One to allow Congress to enact legislation that is neither expressly listed in the enumerated power nor expressly denied in the limitations on Congress. In McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), the United States Supreme Court fell back on the strict construction of the necessary and proper clause to read that Congress had "[t]he foregoing powers and all other powers..."

Article Two: Executive

Section analysis Section 1 creates the presidency. The section states that the executive power is vested in a President. The presidential term is four years and the Vice President serves the identical term. This section originally set the method of electing the President and Vice President, but this method has been superseded by the Twelfth Amendment.

·         Qualifications. The President must be a natural born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old and a resident of the United States for at least 14 years. An obsolete part of this clause provides that instead of being a natural born citizen, a person may be a citizen at the time of the adoption of the Constitution. The reason for this clause was to extend eligibility to Citizens of the United States at the time of the adoption of the Constitution, regardless of their place of birth, who were born under the allegiance of a foreign sovereign before the founding of the United States. Without this clause, no one would have been eligible to be president until thirty-five years after the founding of the United States.

·         Succession. Section 1 specifies that the Vice President succeeds to the presidency if the President is removed, unable to discharge the powers and duties of office, dies while in office, or resigns. The original text ("the same shall devolve") left it unclear whether this succession was intended to be on an acting basis (merely taking on the powers of the office) or permanent (assuming the Presidency itself). After the death of William Henry Harrison, John Tyler set the precedent that the succession was permanent; this practice was followed when later presidents died in office. Today the 25th Amendment states that the Vice President becomes President upon the death or disability of the President.

·         Pay. The President receives "Compensation" for being the president, and this compensation may not be increased or decreased during the president's term in office. The president may not receive other compensation from either the United States or any of the individual states.

·         Oath of office. The final clause creates the presidential oath to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution.

Section 2 grants substantive powers to the president:

·         The president is the Commander in Chief of the United States Armed Forces, and of the state militias when these are called into federal service.

·         The president may require opinions of the principal officers of the federal government.

·         The president may grant reprieves and pardons, except in cases of impeachment (i.e., the president cannot pardon himself or herself to escape impeachment by Congress).

Section 2 grants and limits the president's appointment powers:

·         The president may make treaties, with the advice and consent of the Senate, provided two-thirds of the senators who are present agree.

·         With the advice and consent of the Senate, the President may appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose appointments are not otherwise described in the Constitution.

·         Congress may give the power to appoint lower officers to the President alone, to the courts, or to the heads of departments.

·         The president may make any of these appointments during a congressional recess. Such a "recess appointment" expires at the end of the next session of Congress.

Section 3 opens by describing the president's relations with Congress:

·         The president reports on the state of the union.

·         The president may convene either house, or both houses, of Congress.

·         When the two houses of Congress cannot agree on the time of adjournment, the president may adjourn them to some future date.

Section 3 adds:

·         The president receives ambassadors.

·         The president sees that the laws are faithfully executed.

·         The president commissions all the offices of the federal government.

Section 4 provides for removal of the president and other federal officers. The president is removed on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Article Three: Judiciary

See also: wikisource:Constitution of the United States of America#Article IIIArticle Three describes the court system (the judicial branch), including the Supreme Court. The article requires that there be one court called the Supreme Court; Congress, at its discretion, can create lower courts, whose judgments and orders are reviewable by the Supreme Court. Article Three also creates the right to trial by jury in all criminal cases, defines the crime of treason, and charges Congress with providing for a punishment for it. This Article also sets the kinds of cases that may be heard by the federal judiciary, which cases the Supreme Court may hear first (called original jurisdiction), and that all other cases heard by the Supreme Court are by appeal under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

Federal relationships

Article Four: The States

Article Four outlines the relation between the states and the relation between the federal government. In addition, it provides for such matters as admitting new states as well as border changes between the states. For instance, it requires states to give "full faith and credit" to the public acts, records, and court proceedings of the other states. Congress is permitted to regulate the manner in which proof of such acts, records, or proceedings may be admitted. The "privileges and immunities" clause prohibits state governments from discriminating against citizens of other states in favor of resident citizens (e.g., having tougher penalties for residents of Ohio convicted of crimes within Michigan).

It also establishes extradition between the states, as well as laying down a legal basis for freedom of movement and travel amongst the states. Today, this provision is sometimes taken for granted, especially by citizens who live near state borders; but in the days of the Articles of Confederation, crossing state lines was often a much more arduous and costly process. Article Four also provides for the creation and admission of new states. The Territorial Clause gives Congress the power to make rules for disposing of federal property and governing non-state territories of the United States. Finally, the fourth section of Article Four requires the United States to guarantee to each state a republican form of government, and to protect the states from invasion and violence.

Article Five: Amendments

An amendment may be ratified in three ways:

·         The new amendment may be approved by two-thirds of both houses of Congress, then sent to the states for approval.

·         Two-thirds of the state legislatures may apply to Congress for a constitutional convention to consider amendments, which are then sent to the states for approval.

·         Congress may require ratification by special convention. The convention method has been used only once, to approve the 21st Amendment (repealing prohibition, 1933).

Regardless of the method of proposing an amendment, final ratification requires approval by three-fourths of the states.

Today Article Five places only one limit on the amending power: no amendment may deprive a state of equal representation in the Senate without that state's consent. The original Article V included other limits on the amending power regarding slavery and taxation; however, these limits expired in 1808.

Article Six: Central government

Article Six establishes the Constitution, and the laws and treaties of the United States made according to it, to be the supreme law of the land, and that "the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the laws or constitutions of any state notwithstanding." It also validates national debt created under the Articles of Confederation and requires that all federal and state legislators, officers, and judges take oaths or affirmations to support the Constitution. This means that the states' constitutions and laws should not conflict with the laws of the federal constitution and that in case of a conflict, state judges are legally bound to honor the federal laws and constitution over those of any state.

Article Six also states "no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States."

Article Seven: Ratification

Article Seven sets forth the requirements for ratification of the Constitution. The Constitution would not take effect until at least nine states had ratified the Constitution in state conventions specially convened for that purpose, and it would only apply to those states that ratified it.[20] (See above Drafting and ratification requirements.)